2009 National Healthcare Quality & Disparities Reports
Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, U.S. Department of Health & Human Services
In March 2010, for the seventh year in a row, the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) produced the National Healthcare Quality Report and the National Healthcare Disparities Report. These reports measure trends in effectiveness of care, patient safety, timeliness of care, patient centeredness, and efficiency of care. The reports present, in chart form, the latest available findings on quality of and access to health care.
Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR)
The Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR) is the Government of Canada’s agency responsible for funding health research in Canada. CIHR was created in 2000 under the authority of the CIHR Act and reports to Parliament through the Minister of Health. CIHR’s mandate is to “excel, according to internationally accepted standards of scientific excellence, in the creation of new knowledge and its translation into improved health for Canadians, more effective health services and products and a strengthened Canadian health-care system.” CIHR consists of 13 “virtual” institutes, a structure that is unique in the world. These innovative institutes bring together all partners in the research process – the people who fund research, those who carry it out and those who use its results – to share ideas and focus on what Canadians need: good health and the means to prevent disease and fight it when it happens. Each institute supports a broad spectrum of research in its topic areas and, in consultation with its stakeholders, sets priorities for research in those areas.
CA7AE: HIV/AIDS Prevention Project
“In our every deliberation, we must consider the impact of our decisions on the next seven generations”
- The Great Law of the Six Nations Iroquois Confederacy Commitment to Action for 7th-Generation Awareness & Education: HIV/AIDS Prevention Project (CA7AE: HAPP) provides health community change through the use of specific interventions using the Community Readiness Model. CA7AE: HAPP is funded by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention to provide Capacity Building Assistance to high risk and/or racial/ethnic minority populations. The project is a part of both the National Center for Community Readiness and the Ethnic Studies Department at Colorado State University in Fort Collins, Colorado.
Community-Campus Partnerships for Health (CCPH)
Community-Campus Partnerships for Health (CCPH) is a nonprofit organization that promotes health (broadly defined) through partnerships between communities and higher educational institutions. Founded in 1996, we are a growing network of over 1,800 communities and campuses across North America and increasingly the world that are collaborating to promote health through service-learning, community-based participatory research, broad-based coalitions and other partnership strategies. These partnerships are powerful tools for improving higher education, civic engagement and the overall health of communities.
As a part of its overall public health mission, the United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) provides national leadership in helping control the HIV epidemic by working with community, state, national, and international partners in surveillance, research, prevention and evaluation activities.
CDC HIV/AIDS Surveillance Report
The latest US HIV/AIDS statistics and surveillance resources, including regular reports containing information about U.S. AIDS and HIV case reports, data by state, metropolitan statistical area, mode of exposure to HIV, sex, race/ethnicity, age group, vital status, and case definition category. The HIV/AIDS Surveillance Report is published annually by the Divisions of HIV/AIDS Prevention, National Center for HIV, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention, CDC.
Based at the Medical College of Wisconsin, the Center for AIDS Intervention Research (CAIR) is a multidisciplinary HIV prevention research center. CAIR faculty and staff are dedicated to the development, conduct, and evaluation of new strategies to prevent HIV among persons most vulnerable to the disease. CAIR’s research also focuses on the prevention of adverse health and mental outcomes among persons living with HIV infection and their loved ones.
Based in San Francisco, California, the mission of CAPS is to conduct domestic and international research to prevent the acquisition of HIV and to optimize health outcomes among HIV-infected individuals.
The Center for HIV Identification, Prevention, and Treatment Services (CHIPTS) is a collaboration of researchers from UCLA, Charles Drew University of Medicine and Science, Friends Research Institute, and RAND working with the broader Los Angeles community toward a common goal: to enhance our collective understanding of HIV research and to promote early detection, effective prevention, and treatment programs for HIV. Funded by the National Institute of Mental Health, CHIPTS serves as a bridge among researchers, government, service providers, and people with HIV in responding to the changes in the HIV epidemic and in shaping sound public policy.
The Center for Interdisciplinary Research on AIDS (CIRA) was established in 1997 and is currently New England’s only National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) funded AIDS research center. CIRA brings together scientists from 20 different disciplines and two institutions including Yale University and The Institute for Community Research, located in Hartford, CT. At Yale, faculty from seven different schools participate in CIRA, including the School of Public Health, Medical School, School of Management, Law School, Graduate School, Nursing School, and Divinity School.
The CHAIN study, a 15 year longitudinal study conducted by researchers at the Mailman School of Public Health at Columbia University in NYC, is the most comprehensive study to date of the service needs and gaps in services for people living with HIV/AIDS. Data derived from this study supports the theory that stable housing is one of the primary needs of people living with HIV/AIDS and that housing and supportive services, like case management, are critical pathways into HIV care and treatment and critical in any comprehensive prevention program.
The Chicago Housing for Health Partnership (CHHP) is a collaborative service and research project that provides stable, safe housing for individuals with a chronic medical illness, such as HIV/AIDS, who are homeless or lack permanent housing. Under CHHP, case managers find attainable housing for the chronically ill and homeless by locating interim housing until permanent housing becomes available. The research study is the first in the nation to evaluate whether providing stable housing and intensive case management services to chronically medically ill homeless individuals improves their health and health service utilization.
The Canadian Tri-Council Policy Statement’s Ethical Conduct for Research Involving Humans (TCPS) describes principles, standards and procedures for governing research involving human subjects. The TCPS applies to all research involving humans that is conducted within or by members of research institutions administering funds awarded by any of the three federal research agencies (Canadian Institutes of Health Research, the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council, and the Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council). Other organizations have also adopted the TCPS. The Tutorial for the TCPS helps to educate the research community about the TCPS. It also facilitates the use, interpretation and implementation of the TCPS.
Health Care for the Homeless Clinicians’ Network article.
Report from the Justice Policy Institute (Washington, D.C.). Nov 2007
This research brief will summarize recent findings on what is known about access to quality or substandard housing as it relates to public safety and the use of incarceration. Along with conducting a brief literature review, the Justice Policy Institute (JPI) has compared data on state housing expenditures with crime rates and incarceration rates. While there is no single solution that will entirely reduce the probability that a person will be involved in criminal activity, and the literature is not conclusive on any one factor that would solve every community’s various challenges, the research suggests that increased investments in housing can have a positive public safety benefit.
Furman Center for Real Estate and Urban Policy, New York University, July 2007.
Communities across New York City and around the nation commonly oppose proposals to open supportive housing in their neighborhoods because of fear that the housing will decrease the quality of life in the neighborhood, and lead to reductions in property values. This study aims to give supportive housing providers and local government officials the objective, credible information they need to guide policy decisions and to respond to opponents’ fears and arguments. Using a difference-in-difference regression model to isolate the effect of supportive housing from more general macro and micro market trends and neighborhood variations, this paper examines the impact that almost 14,000 units of supportive housing created in New York City over the past twenty-five years have had on their host neighborhoods over time. In a preliminary analysis, we find little evidence that supportive housing facilities diminish the value of surrounding properties. We find evidence that prices of properties surrounding supportive housing facilities are lower than comparable properties in the same neighborhood prior to the opening of the facility, and that this gap tends to narrow following the opening of a facility. Specifically, the preliminary analysis suggests that modestly sized supportive housing developments (which are typical in New York City) may have small, positive impacts on neighboring property values, though these positive impacts decline as project size increases. Very large facilities may have negative impacts on the surrounding neighborhood.
IRDC is a Canadian Crown corporation that works in close collaboration with researchers from the developing world in their search for the means to build healthier, more equitable, and more prosperous societies.
The Department of Health, Behavior and Society was established in the summer of 2005 with a mission dedicated to research and training that advances scientific understanding of the impact on health of behavior and the societal context. It seeks to understand how behaviors within the environmental context operate at the individual, organizational, community and societal levels to affect health, and to develop, implement, evaluate and disseminate interventions that facilitate health behaviors to improve health outcomes.
A leader in health policy and communications, the Kaiser Family Foundation is a non-profit, private operating foundation focusing on the major health care issues facing the U.S., as well as the U.S. role in global health policy. Unlike grant-making foundations, Kaiser develops and runs its own research and communications programs, sometimes in partnership with other non-profit research organizations or major media companies.
The MacArthur Research Network on Socioeconomic Status and Health is a multi-disciplinary collaboration comprising leading scholars from the fields of psychology, sociology, psychoneuroimmunology, medicine, epidemiology, neuroscience, biostatistics, and economics who have been working together for the last decade. The network research agenda is organized around an integrated conceptual model of the environmental and psychosocial pathways by which socioeconomic status alters the performance of biological systems, thereby affecting disease risk, disease progression, and ultimately mortality.
The Office of AIDS Research (OAR) coordinates the scientific, budgetary, legislative, and policy elements of the NIH AIDS research program. Through its annual comprehensive trans-NIH planning, budgeting, and portfolio assessment processes, OAR sets scientific priorities, enhances collaboration, and ensures that research dollars are invested in the highest priority areas of scientific opportunity that will lead to new tools in the global fight against AIDS.
The NIH Office of Extramural Research (OER) is the HHS office overseeing human subject protection for HHS-supported research. This site provides, in one place, HHS and NIH requirements and resources for the extramural community involved in human subjects research in their roles as: Applicants/Grantees, Contractors, Peer Reviewers, Institutional Officials.
Individuals who will be involved in the design or conduct of NIH-funded human subjects research must fulfill the education requirement. These individuals are considered to be “key personnel” and include Principal Investigator(s) on NIH awards that include research involving human subjects, all individuals responsible for the design or conduct of the study, and those individuals identified as key personnel of consortium participants or alternate performance sites if they are participating in research that involves human subjects. The NIH does not endorse any specific programs to fulfill the requirement for education on the protection of human subjects. NIH believes that institutions are in the best position to determine what programs are appropriate for fulfilling the education requirement. Institutions may require a particular program or may choose to develop a program to meet the requirement.
The OHRP (formerly the Office for Protection from Research Risks) is an administrative unit within the US Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS), organizationally located in the Office of Public Health and Science, under the direction of the Assistant Secretary for Health. OHRP’s responsibilities include implementation of the DHHS Regulations for the Protection of Human Subjects (45 CFR 46), and the provision of guidance on ethical issues in biomedical and behavioral research. A major difference between the OHSR and the OHRP is that the OHSR’s activities are limited to the IRP, NIH, while the OHRP has oversight and educational responsibilities wherever DHHS funds are used to conduct research involving human subjects.
The Canadian Interagency Advisory Panel on Research Ethics (PRE) is a body of external experts established in November 2001 by three Canadian Research Agencies — the Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR), the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council (NSERC) and the Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council (SSHRC) — to support the development and evolution of their joint research ethics policy the Tri-Council Policy Statement: Ethical Conduct for Research Involving Humans (TCPS). When the TCPS was adopted in August 1998, the Agencies committed to keeping it a living, or “evolving,” document in order to respond to new research developments and identified gaps in the Policy. PRE has thus been created to advise the Agencies on the evolution, interpretation, implementation and educational needs of the TCPS. PRE’s independent and multidisciplinary advice is intended to promote high standards of ethical conduct, advance the protection of human research participants and enhance accountability in research ethics.
The UCLA AIDS Institute provides a unique, multidisciplinary think-tank for top-flight researchers who are assailing HIV from a dozen disciplines and directions. Institute members include faculty who work in the fields of virology and immunology, genetics, cancer, neurology, ophthalmology, epidemiology, social science, public health, nursing, and disease prevention.
The Urban Health Research Initiative (UHRI) was established in 2007 as a program of the British Columbia Centre for Excellence in HIV/AIDS at St. Paul’s Hospital in Vancouver, Canada. Led by principal investigators Thomas Kerr, PhD, and Evan Wood, MD, PhD, UHRI is based on a network of studies that have been developed to help identify and understand the many factors that affect the health of urban populations, with a focus on substance use, infectious diseases, the urban environment and homelessness.
Aboriginal Street Youth More Likely to be HIV Positive: http://uhri.cfenet.ubc.ca/images/Documents/arys-aboriginal.pdf
Homelessness a Key Factor in Public Drug Use: http://uhri.cfenet.ubc.ca/images/Documents/public_injecting.pdf
Homelessness Increases Health Risks to Street Youth: http://uhri.cfenet.ubc.ca/images/Documents/high_rates.pdf
The School of Social Policy & Practice contributes to the advancement of more effective, efficient and humane human services through education, research and civic engagement. In pursuit of this mission, our theory-based masters and doctoral programs in social work, social welfare, non-profit leadership and social policy encourage students to think and work across disciplinary lines and cultures as well as across national and international boundaries. The pursuit of social justice is at the heart of the School’s knowledge-building activities.
The Veterans Aging Cohort Study (VACS) is a prospective, observational cohort study of HIV- positive and an age/race/site matched control group of HIV- negative veterans in care in the United States. The study’s aim is to understand the role of co-morbid medical and psychiatric disease in determining clinical outcomes in HIV infection. It is funded primarily by the National Institute on Alcoholism and Alcohol Abuse, National Institutes of Health. The study has a special focus on the role of alcohol use and abuse in determining clinical outcomes.